In law, an affidavit is a written statement made by a person, voluntarily and under an oath as administered by a person legally authorized to do so. Individuals such as certain members of state, local and federal government qualify as “authorized” under the definition, as do public notaries that are certified by the state where the statement takes place. There are many different types of affidavits used for a variety of legal reasons; if you’re asked to provide one, you should have a basic understanding of why you’re being asked to do so.

Affidavit of Small Estate:

When a spouse or immediate family member dies without a will, someone must act on that person’s behalf to wrap up all property matters and distribute assets to those entitled to them. Many courts offer a “small estate” proceeding where the value of all property falls below a certain amount, but the individual handling the estate must attest to the fact that the assets are under that minimum threshold. The Affidavit of Small Estate, like other affidavits, is equivalent to the signer testifying under oath about the statements being made as to estate value.

Affidavit of Heirship:

This document is also used when a spouse or close family member dies and their assets must be distributed to the right individuals. The Affidavit of Heirship is executed by a person who is attesting that the deceased left certain descendants behind and is listing them by name and relationship.

Affidavit of Residence:

If you need to verify the home of someone, you would use an Affidavit of Residence. Common scenarios include needing to prove your home address for business or tax reasons, or to establish that a child belongs in a certain school district.

Affidavit of Name Change:

Mostly used when a person gets married or divorce, this affidavit is used to prove that you’ve legally changed your name. Typically, you’ll state your existing name, new name and identify the jurisdiction where the change occurred.

Affidavit of Support:

In immigration proceedings, applicants are often required to show that someone else can provide appropriate financial support during the process of gaining status as a permanent resident alien or citizen. The Affidavit of Support is executed by the person who is financially able to ensure the applicant doesn’t become a burden to government resources.

Financial Affidavit:

In divorce proceedings, spouses must reveal all of their assets owned – both jointly and individually – so that a court can make a determination about dividing property. Such information is also used to decide spousal and child support. By executing a Financial Affidavit, the signer is swearing under oath that he or she owns the assets listed.

Affidavit of Death:

If you need to notify a business, bank, court or other entity that a person has died, you would usually present a Death Certificate. However, where this document is impossible or impractical to obtain, an Affidavit of Death can be used to establish that the person has passed.

Identity Theft Affidavit:

If your identity has been compromised – either online or otherwise – it’s recommended that you notify creditors and credit bureaus of the fact. Some companies will require you to swear under oath through an Identify Theft Affidavit regarding the unauthorized use of your personal information.

Affidavit of Service:

While less common than other types of affidavits, the Affidavit of Service stands as sworn testimony that you delivered specified documents to another individual. Certain required notices, especially involving court matters, must be attested to by an Affidavit of Service to prove that you gave required paperwork to the individual listed.

Regardless of the reason you’re requested to prepare an affidavit, it’s essential that you follow the proper procedures to ensure that the document has full force and effect under the law. If you’re in need of notary services to certify statements made on an affidavit, you should consult with a professional for more information on the process.


Litigation services by expert Indian Property Lawyer for:

  1. Civil suits pertaining to property matters
  2. Partition suits
  3. Specific performance matters
  4. Lease, license and other related matters
  5. Family estate distribution matters
  6. Mesne Profit matters
  7. Rent matters
  8. Stay on demolition matters
  9. Arbitration proceedings in property matters
  10. Implementation of arbitration awards

ONLINE LEGAL SERVICES by expert Indian Property Lawyer for:

  1. Legal advice and all services for Real estate projects
  2. JV in Indian real estate companies
  3. Housing colonies and townships
  4. TCPO matters
  5. Change of land use (CLU) matters
  6. FDI advice in real estate in India
  7. Project sanction advice and services for real estate projects
  8. Zoning issues of Master Plans for cities
  9. Environmental clearance matters for real estate projects
  10. Techno legal advice for housing projects, industrial projects, commercial complexes

Online legal drafting services by expert Indian Property Lawyer for drafting and vetting of:

  1. Lease Deed
  2. License Agreement
  3. Conveyance Deed
  4. Sale Deed
  5. General Power of Attorney
  6. Special Power of Attorney
  7. Earnest Money receipts
  8. Assignment Deeds
  9. JV construction agreements
  10. Builder agreement

Expert Indian Property Lawyer for all legal services of:

  1. Property disputes
  2. Sale and purchase matters
  3. Transfer of ownership matters
  4. Construction
  5. Partition
  6. Evaluation
  7. Conversion
  8. Lease
  9. License
  10. Due diligence on property title
  11. Due diligence on compliance aspects of property


Property law matters are often very complex and involve various laws including the local laws where the property is located hence the services of expert property lawyer becomes very important under these circumstances. We provide all services of legal advice, litigation services, and legal documentation services in the fields of property laws in India.

We have a dedicated team for handling the real estate matters which includes the team of legal, para legal, techno legal manpower for all project advice matters, check on compliance, advice on all environmental and land use issues. We are already providing these services to renowned real estate companies

Since you can use the support round the clock, you can finish your job quicker.


Execution of the sale deed is technically the concluding part of property-purchase process. After a buyer and a seller reach an agreement, they first execute an agreement to sell, a document that sets the terms and conditions based on which the future transaction will take place. The creation of the agreement to sell means terms have been placed for the transaction while the creation of sale deed means the purchase has completed. As mentioned in the agreement to sell, the two parties have to conclude the sale within a set period after executing the agreement to sell.

Now, let us see what all a sale deed consists of and how it is executed

Calculate stamp duty, buy non-judicial stamp paper

All the details pertaining to the transaction would be typed on non-judicial stamp papers — stamp papers that are used for execution of deeds are known as non-judicial stamp papers while the ones used to pay a fee to the court are known as judicial stamp papers.

The value of these stamp papers would be the money you have to pay the authority as stamp duty, the fee authorities charge to register a deal in government records. For example, stamp duty charge in the national capital is six per cent for men and four per cent for women. A man purchasing a flat for Rs 10 lakh will have to buy stamp papers worth Rs 60,000 in Delhi.

The buyer can buy e-stamp of the correct value after creating an ID on the official website of Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL). Using the same site, one can also get the e-stamps home delivered after paying an additional fee. Alternatively, you could visit SHCIL Authorised Collection Centers near you to collect e-stamps purchased online.

Note here that the e-Stamping facility is currently operational in Gujarat, Karnataka, Delhi, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Puducherry, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Chandigarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. In other states, one has to buy physical papers them from authorised centres.

After the purchase of the papers, every single detail about the transaction and the manner is being carried out would be typed out of the paper. These details would include:

Names of buyer, seller

PAN numbers of buyer, seller

Photographs of buyer, seller

Full detail of the property

Deal value and all other financial details, including TDS payment (if applicable)
Receipt of registration charge payment (One per cent of the deal value plus Rs 100 pasting charges have to be paid as registration charge)

Stamp duty amount

Name of the person paying the stamp duty (as a standard practice, the buyer pays the stamp duty)

Names and address of two witnesses


The Trade Marks Registry was established in India in 1940 and presently it administers the Trade Marks Act, 1999 and the rules thereunder. It acts as a resource and information centre and is a facilitator in matters relating to trade marks in the country. The objective of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 is to register trade marks applied for in the country and to provide for better protection of trade mark for goods and services and also to prevent fraudulent use of the mark. The main function of the Registry is to register trade marks which qualifies for registration under the Act and Rules.


I couldn’t found more about these services. You have to write something for this service.



A brief description of the stages of Criminal case in India

A criminal case in India is regulated and conducted under Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 which describes the process of conducting a criminal case in India. The stages of a criminal case in India can be described in the following steps:


Reporting of commission of an offence to the police. The persons informing the police is called either informant or complainant and the persons against whom complaint is made are called suspect or accused based on the facts of the case.


Police may register a FIR if the matter reported amounts to commission of a cognizable offence and start the investigation in the matter. The police may not register a FIR if the matter reported is a non-cognizable offence. This is named as a state case when the police registers the FIR on the basis of the complaint. This may be termed as the beginning of the criminal case in India.

Complaint case:

When the police refuse to register the FIR despite a specific complaint of cognizable offense. The complainant has the remedy to file an application under Section 156(3) of CrPC before the court of the magistrate. The Magistrate can issue directions to the police to register a FIR and investigate the matter. This is a very important step in the criminal case in India.

If the magistrate declines to issue the directions to the police to register the FIR , the option still available with the complainant is to file a complaint under Section 200 of Cr PC before the court of the Magistrate seeking summoning and punishment of the accused persons. This is called the complaint case as police has no role to play in the same. The court may after considering the evidence led by the complainant may issue summons against the accused persons in the criminal case in India.


If the offence reported is bailable , the police may admit the accused on bail subject to the terms and conditions imposed on him. If the offence reported is non-bailable then the police may either arrest the accused or may not arrest him if his custodial interrogation is not required. The accused may obtain bail from the court in the event of his apprehension of arrest by taking the services of a bail lawyer.


The offences have been described in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and various other special laws including the laws applicable in the respective states. Police is required to conduct the investigation in the matter after registration of the FIR and to collect the entire evidence related to the commission of the offence and role of the accused persons, witnesses, medical evidence etc. The police is required to file the charge sheet on the basis of the same before the competent court and the court may issue summons to the accused persons named in the charge sheet filed by the police.


Criminal case in India is assigned to the court of the magistrates depending upon the nature of the offence as classified in the First Schedule of the CrPC. In metropolitan cities, the magistrate is often named as Metropolitan Magistrate whereas in the other areas he is called the Judicial Magistrate.

After issuance of the summons to the accused persons by the court, the criminal trial formally begins and the accused persons are summoned to appear before the court on the date fixed by the court. This is another important stage in the criminal case in India.


Court then proceeds to frame charges on the accused persons on the basis of the contents of the FIR, the court has the powers to remove and add charges on the accused persons on the basis of the FIR.

Next stage of the criminal case in India is the evidence stage of the case when all the witnesses named by the police in its charge sheet are summoned before the court to give evidence and prove the case of the police, the accused are given the liberty to cross examine the said witnesses to disprove the case of the prosecution. In this process the police is represented by the APP and the accused persons have the liberty to be represented by their defense counsels.


After the prosecution witness is over, the accused are given the chance to produce their defense witness thereafter the court proceeds to record the statement of the accused persons. This is the stage of production of defence in the criminal case in India.


The matter is thereafter fixed for final arguments and on the basis of that the court comes to the conclusion whether the offence has been proved or not, the court passes the orders in the case accordingly.

If the guilt of the accused persons has been proved the court thereafter fixes the matter for sentence and awards the sentence to the accused persons based upon the facts of the case. This is the last stage of the case and the criminal trial is treated to be completed after this stage. The accused persons are either convicted or exonerated based on the findings of the trial and the aggrieved party has the liberty to file appeal against the orders passed in the matter. This is considered as the final stage of the criminal case in India


The last place anyone wants to find themselves is in a jail cell. And if you’re unlucky enough arrive in one your first concern is getting out as quickly as possible. But how? First you will need to be “booked,” or processed into police custody. Then you may have to post “bail,” a set amount of money you pay in exchange for your release.

This article provides an overview of the booking procedure and the bail and bonds process.

What Does Booking Mean?

If you’re placed under arrest, normally you will be taken into police custody and booked, or processed. During booking, officers will generally:

    Record your personal information (name, date of birth, physical characteristics);

    Record information about the alleged crime;

    Record your fingerprints, and photographs;

    Check for any criminal background;

    Search your person and confiscates any personal property like keys, phone, or a purse (to be returned upon your release); and

    Place you in a police station holding cell or local jail.


If you’ve been arrested for a minor offense, you might be given a written citation and released, after signing the citation and promising to appear in court at a later date. If not, you will go through the bail and bond procedure.

Arraignment and Own Recognizance Release

After booking, the next step is the arraignment, where you will be read the formal charges and be given an opportunity to arrange for your release. The main concern authorities have is that you show up for your future court dates. In certain cases, you may be eligible to be released on your own recognizance. This means you promise in writing to appear in court later on. A judge deciding whether to grant own recognizance release normally considers:

    The seriousness of the crime;

    Your criminal record, if any;

    Whether you pose a danger to the community; and

    Your ties to the community (whether you are a risk to flee).

If you are released on your own recognizance and fail to appear for your court date as scheduled, a warrant may be issued for your arrest.

What is Bail?

In some cases, a written promise to appear in court isn’t enough, and the court will want a financial guarantee that you will appear in court. Bail is a process by which you pay a set amount of money to obtain your release from police custody. As part of your release, you promise to appear in court for all of your scheduled criminal proceedings. If you show up to court as promised, the bail amount will be returned. If not, you will be subject to arrest and you will forfeit the bail amount.

The bail proceedings can vary from court to court, but generally the court will have a bail hearing to decide whether to grant bail (in extreme cases a court can deny your release altogether) and, if so, what amount is appropriate. The court will have a bail hearing, during which it will consider:

    Your physical and mental condition;

    Your financial resources;

    Your family ties;

    Any history relating to drug and alcohol abuse;

    Any criminal history;

    Any previous record concerning appearance at court proceedings; and

    The length of your residence in the community.

Along with the monetary bail determination, the court could also impose restrictions on your release like limiting your travel, enforcing a curfew, revoking gun ownership privileges, or requiring drug, alcohol, medical, or psychological testing or treatment.

Posting Bail and Bail Bond Agents

Once a court has set the amount of your bail, that amount, or a specified percentage, must be posted, or paid to the court. Generally you can pay in cash or an approved cash substitute, such as a money order or cashier’s check. Once you’ve posted bail, the court will issue a document or an order that shows you may be released.

If you can’t afford to post your own bail, you can contract a commercial bail bond agent (or bail bondsman) to pay and ensure bond. A bond agent will charge a non-refundable fee, usually 10 to 20 percent of the total bail. In return, the bail bond agent agrees to pay the remaining amount to the court if you fail to appear for your court proceedings.

Judiciary System of India

Judicial System or the court system is also the Judiciary System. The court has the power to make decisions and also enforce the law, solve disputes. Judiciary system consists of Judges and other magistrates, they form the bench or the core of the judiciary system.

On 26 January 1950, the Indian Constitution was written and it is worlds largest constitution written. The constitution is the source of law in India and also the supreme law of India. Judicial System of India consists of Supreme Court, High Court, District Court or Subordinate Court.

Supreme Court of India

Under the constitution of India, the supreme court is the final court of appeal. Hence has the chief justice of India, including 30 judges and other judges for advisory jurisdiction. Unsolved or still in dispute cases are leveled up to Supreme court to reattain justice. If the supreme court declares a law it is binding on all other courts of all States and Union territory. Every court building has 15 courtrooms. the Eligibility to become a Chief justice is:

 Learn more About Our Criminal Justice System here in detail

  • The judge in one High court or more, for at least 5 years or advocate in high court for at least 10 years.
  • A distinguished judge in the opinion of the President of India.

Judiciary system

High Court of India

Under the constitution of India, every state should regard to one high court. Mumbai high court id the oldest high court in India. Every High court has 94 judges out of which 71 are permanent and 23 are additional judges. High court deals with economic issues and legal documentation. These courts also have an additional set of legal professionals. Eligibility for a high court judge is

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • An advocate should have at least 10 years of practice in any court.

Judiciary system

District Court of India

Under the constitution of India, district courts or Subordinate Courts are subordinate to the high court. District courts are established according to the population distribution of the district and state. It looks after the Civil and criminal matters of the district. A law declared by the district court is applicable to all subordinate courts. Since District court is at a higher hierarchical level. Eligibility for judge in district court is

  • He should be a citizen of India
  • An advocate should have at least practice for 7 years.